Web Application Firewall (WAF): A security tool that monitors and filters incoming HTTP/HTTPS traffic to a web application. The purpose of a WAF is to protect web applications from common web attacks such as SQL injection, cross-site scripting (XSS), and other types of injection attacks. A WAF uses a set of rules to inspect incoming traffic, and it can block or allow requests based on those rules. Some WAFs are implemented as software that runs on an application server, while others are implemented as network devices that sit in front of the application servers. WAFs can be either network-based or host-based.
Security Logging and Monitoring Controls: A set of procedures and technologies used to collect, store, and analyze log data from various devices and systems within an organization's network. This includes servers, workstations, routers, firewalls, and other devices. The goal of these controls is to identify and alert on security-related events, such as attempted intrusions or unauthorized access to sensitive data. Examples of security logging and monitoring controls include intrusion detection systems (IDS), security information and event management (SIEM) systems, and network traffic analysis tools.
Vulnerability Scanning: The process of identifying and assessing vulnerabilities in a computer system, network or web application. This process typically involves using automated tools to identify potential security weaknesses, such as missing patches or misconfigured settings. The results of the scan are typically presented in a report, which can be used to prioritize and address the vulnerabilities that pose the greatest risk to the organization. The goal of vulnerability scanning is to identify vulnerabilities before they can be exploited by attackers, and to provide organizations with the information they need to take proactive measures to reduce their risk.
Email Authentication Protocols: A set of technical standards or protocols that are used to authenticate the identity of the sender of an email message. These protocols provide a way for email servers to verify that an incoming message was sent by the domain that it claims to be sent from. Common examples of email authentication protocols include Sender Policy Framework (SPF), DomainKeys Identified Mail (DKIM), and Domain-based Message Authentication, Reporting and Conformance (DMARC). These protocols help to prevent email spoofing and phishing by making it more difficult for attackers to impersonate legitimate senders.
Monitoring Social Media and other platforms: Refers to online platforms, websites, and applications that allow users to create and share content or participate in social networking. Examples of social media platforms include Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Instagram, and TikTok. These platforms can be used for personal, professional, and business purposes, and can play a significant role in communication, marketing, and networking.
Software and Firmware Security Standards: A set of guidelines, protocols, and best practices that define the methods and techniques for securing software and firmware systems. These standards aim to ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of information systems by mitigating the risks associated with software vulnerabilities and other security threats. The standards provide a common framework for designing, implementing, and maintaining secure software and firmware systems and cover various aspects of software security, such as secure coding practices, threat modeling, secure deployment and configuration, and incident response. Examples of software and firmware security standards include ISO/IEC 27034, OWASP Top 10, and NIST SP 800-53.
Web Filtering Controls: Set of technologies and processes used to restrict access to certain websites or types of online content. They are typically used in organizational networks to enforce internet usage policies, reduce the risk of malware or phishing attacks, or meet regulatory requirements. Web filtering controls can include hardware or software solutions, such as firewalls, proxies, or content filters, that are configured to block or allow access to specific websites based on rules defined by an administrator.
Browser Extensions: Small software programs that can modify and enhance the functionality of a web browser. They can add new features to the browser, change the appearance of websites, and improve the user experience. Examples of common browser extensions include ad-blockers, password managers, and tools for organizing bookmarks. These extensions run within the context of a web browser and are designed to make browsing the web faster, easier, and more secure.
Anti-Virus and Anti-Malware Software: Security software that helps protect a computer system against malicious software, such as viruses, trojan horses, worms, spyware, and other malicious software. Anti-virus software specifically targets and removes viruses, while anti-malware software provides a broader protection against various types of malicious software. These programs monitor and scan the computer for any malicious activity and can also automatically update their virus definition databases to provide the most up-to-date protection.
Apply Patches and Updates: The process of releasing fixes, enhancements, or new versions for software or hardware components. This is done to address vulnerabilities, improve functionality, and fix bugs. Patches and updates are an important aspect of maintaining the security and stability of a system and can be applied through various methods including manual installation, automated updates, or through a patch management system.
Network Segmentation in the DMZ: The practice of dividing a larger network into smaller, isolated segments (also known as subnets) to improve security and reduce the risk of a security breach. This can be achieved by using firewalls and routers to limit access and control the flow of data within and between different segments of the network. The Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) is a network segment that is typically used to host public-facing services, such as web servers, and is separate from the internal network. The purpose of network segmentation in the DMZ is to create a secure, isolated environment for public-facing systems that can be easily monitored and managed, while also protecting the internal network from external threats.
Security Awareness: Refers to the knowledge and understanding of security practices, policies, and procedures among individuals in an organization. This includes understanding the importance of information security and being aware of the potential threats, such as phishing, malware, and unauthorized access. Security awareness programs aim to educate employees on how to recognize and avoid security risks and to help the organization maintain a secure environment.
Use Security Software on Mobile Devices: Refers to software applications that are designed to protect mobile devices, such as smartphones and tablets, from cyber threats like malware, viruses, and hacking attacks. This software typically includes anti-virus and anti-malware protection, firewalls, data encryption, and other security features that help to keep the device and its data secure.
Enabling Host-Based Firewalls: Refers to the practice of protecting individual computing devices, such as desktops, laptops, servers, and mobile devices, by using a software firewall. Host-based firewalls run on the individual device and can be used to restrict incoming and outgoing network traffic based on a set of predefined rules. This helps protect the device from unauthorized access and attacks over the network and can also be used to enforce organizational security policies.
Implementing DNS Security: DNS security solutions may help organizations identify and detect potential threats by providing features such as domain name filtering, domain generation algorithm (DGA) detection, and real-time threat intelligence feeds. These features can help organizations detect malicious domain names and IP addresses, prevent command-and-control communication, and protect against fast-flux and other advanced DNS-based attacks.
2FA Solution: 2FA helps to identify and prevent unauthorized access attempts through the use of a second method of authentication. This can be done by using a combination of something the user knows (e.g. a password) and something the user has (e.g. a phone or token) to confirm the user's identity. This added layer of security can help detect and prevent attempts to gain unauthorized access to systems and data.
Secure Remote Access: Secure Remote Access solutions typically involve the use of multi-factor authentication for user identity verification, as well as the implementation of security measures for the endpoint devices being used for remote access, such as firewalls, VPNs, and intrusion detection/prevention systems. Additionally, the solution should have an auditing and accountability mechanism to detect any suspicious activity associated with remote access.
Network Security Controls (Firewalls/VPNS/Proxy Servers): These controls can help identify and detect potential network security breaches by controlling access to network resources, monitoring network traffic, and protecting sensitive data.
Anti-Phishing Software: Anti-phishing software can help with identifying and detecting phishing attempts by analyzing email content and URLs, comparing them against known phishing patterns, and providing warnings to users.
Spam Filters/Email Content Filtering: Technology or process used to identify and block unwanted or malicious email messages, also known as spam. Spam filters use a variety of techniques, such as pattern matching, text analysis, and machine learning to identify spam messages and prevent them from reaching the inbox of the intended recipients. Email content filtering can also be used to detect and block messages that contain malicious attachments or links, phishing attempts, and other types of malicious content.
Conduct Vendor Risk Assessments: The main goal of vendor risk assessment is to identify and evaluate potential risks associated with doing business with a particular vendor, and to put controls in place to mitigate those risks. This can include reviewing the vendor's security practices, assessing the risk of data breaches or other cyber incidents, and monitoring the vendor's compliance with regulatory requirements.
Secure Communications/Secure Protocols/Secure File Transfer Protocols: Refers to the use of secure communication methods, protocols, and file transfer protocols to protect the confidentiality, integrity and availability of data during transmission. Examples of such protocols include HTTPS, SSL, SFTP, and FTPS. These protocols encrypt the data being transmitted to prevent eavesdropping, tampering, and unauthorized access. They also provide authentication mechanisms to verify the identity of the communicating parties, and can help ensure that the data has not been tampered with during transmission. This type of implementation is typically used to protect sensitive information such as financial transactions, personal information, and confidential business data.
Use Encryption Solution: The process of using encryption technologies to protect sensitive data and communications. This can include various types of encryption such as symmetric and asymmetric encryption, as well as different encryption algorithms. Encryption solutions can be applied to a wide range of data, including data at rest and in transit, as well as for secure communications such as virtual private networks (VPNs) and secure file transfer protocols (SFTPs). Encryption solutions can help protect against unauthorized access, disclosure, and modification of sensitive data and protect against eavesdropping during communications.
Implementation of Security Policies: The process of creating, implementing, and maintaining a set of rules and guidelines that govern how an organization's information and systems are protected. These policies outline the acceptable use of technology, procedures for maintaining security, incident response plans, and other guidelines that are designed to protect the organization's sensitive data and assets. The goal of security policies is to establish a consistent and comprehensive approach to securing an organization's information and systems, and to provide guidance for employees, contractors, and other stakeholders on how to protect sensitive data and assets.
Conduct Regular Security Assessments: Refers to the process of evaluating the security of an organization's systems, networks, and applications to identify vulnerabilities and potential threats. This can be done through a variety of methods, such as vulnerability scanning, penetration testing, and risk assessments. The goal is to identify and prioritize vulnerabilities so that they can be addressed in a timely manner, thus reducing the risk of security breaches. This is an important part of the NIST CSF's Identify and Detect categories because it helps organizations to identify and detect potential security issues before they can be exploited.
Phishing Incident Response Plan: Refers to a set of procedures and guidelines that an organization follows when responding to a phishing attack. The plan typically includes steps for identifying and containing the attack, as well as steps for mitigating the effects of the attack and restoring normal operations. The plan may also include guidance for communicating with affected parties, such as employees and customers, and for reporting the incident to relevant authorities. The goal of a phishing incident response plan is to minimize the damage caused by a phishing attack and to help the organization recover quickly.
Security Testing and Red Teaming Exercises: Refer to the simulation of an attack or exploitation of vulnerabilities in a network, system, or application. These exercises are performed by security professionals, also known as "red teamers", with the goal of identifying and addressing any potential security weaknesses or risks before they can be exploited by real-world attackers. These exercises can be performed using various techniques, including penetration testing, social engineering, and physical security assessments. The results of these exercises are used to identify areas for improvement in the organization's security posture, and to develop and implement mitigation strategies.
Threat Intelligence: Refer to real-time, actionable information about current cyber security threats, such as malware, phishing scams, vulnerabilities, and other forms of attacks. The information is usually collected, analyzed, and disseminated by security organizations, such as security vendors, government agencies, and non-profit organizations. Threat intelligence feeds are used by security teams to improve their ability to detect and respond to current threats, as well as to proactively prevent future attacks.
Security Information and Event Management (SIEM): A type of security software that provides real-time analysis of security alerts generated by network hardware and applications. SIEMs consolidate and correlate information from multiple sources, such as firewalls, intrusion detection systems, and antivirus software, to detect potential security threats and provide actionable intelligence for remediation. The software also enables security teams to monitor network activity and perform forensic analysis in case of a security breach.
Network Traffic Analysis (NTA): The process of monitoring, examining, and analyzing network traffic data to identify security threats and suspicious activities. This involves capturing network data, filtering it, and then interpreting it to detect anomalies, unauthorized access attempts, or malicious behavior. The goal of network traffic analysis is to provide security teams with real-time visibility into network activity and to detect potential security incidents in a timely manner, so that they can respond quickly and effectively.
APT Detection and Response: Refers to the process of detecting and responding to sophisticated and persistent cyberattacks, often carried out by organized crime or state-sponsored groups. This process involves the use of various security technologies and techniques, such as endpoint protection, network monitoring, and threat intelligence, to detect and respond to APT attacks in a timely and effective manner. APT Detection and Response is critical for organizations to protect their sensitive information and systems from advanced and persistent threats.
URL Reputation: A process of determining the trustworthiness of a website or web page based on various factors such as its domain name, IP address, content, and links to and from the site. This information is collected and analyzed to assign a reputation score to the URL. The score indicates the likelihood that the URL may be associated with malicious or potentially unwanted activities, such as phishing, malware distribution, or spam. URL Reputation is commonly used by security products, such as firewalls, intrusion prevention systems, and web filters, to block or allow access to specific web pages based on their reputation.
Application Security Testing Tools: Refers to software tools that are used to scan and test the security of web applications, mobile applications, and other software applications. These tools can detect vulnerabilities such as cross-site scripting, SQL injection, and other types of security risks, and help identify and mitigate these issues before they are exploited. Some common application security testing tools include static code analysis tools, dynamic analysis tools, penetration testing tools, and vulnerability scanning tools.
Digital Signature and Trust Verification: Security measures that are used to ensure the authenticity and integrity of digital data. Digital signatures are encrypted algorithms that are attached to electronic documents or messages to verify that they have not been altered in transit and to ensure their authenticity. Trust Verification is the process of confirming the identity of a party involved in an electronic transaction and checking the validity of their digital signature or certificate. These measures help to protect against impersonation, tampering, and other types of cyber-attacks, and are critical to the security and privacy of electronic communications.
Multi Factor Authentication (MFA): A security process that requires a user to provide multiple forms of authentication to gain access to a system, service, or application. The user is typically required to provide something they know (such as a password or security answer), something they have (such as a smartcard, token, or smartphone), and/or something they are (such as a fingerprint, iris scan, or facial recognition). The goal of MFA is to provide a higher level of security than a single form of authentication, such as a password, by requiring multiple forms of authentication to access sensitive information.
Endpoint Detection and Response (EDR): A type of cybersecurity solution that focuses on monitoring and protecting endpoints, such as laptops, desktops, and mobile devices, within an organization's network. The goal of EDR is to detect and respond to security incidents and threats at the endpoint level, often in real-time, by collecting data, analyzing it, and providing incident response capabilities. The primary focus of EDR is to detect, isolate, and remediate threats on endpoints, such as malware, unauthorized access, and data exfiltration.
Application Whitelisting: Security technique that allows only specified applications to run on a computer system or network. The whitelist contains a list of approved applications, and any other application that is not on the list is blocked from executing. This approach provides a level of security by preventing the execution of malware or unauthorized software. Application whitelisting can be used to help organizations meet various security requirements, such as compliance with industry regulations and protection against cyber threats.
Network Sandboxing: A security technique that creates a safe, isolated environment for analyzing network traffic, files, and other data for malicious activity. In this environment, suspicious files and data can be executed and observed without affecting the rest of the network, allowing security teams to identify and respond to threats in a controlled manner. Network sandboxes are commonly used for threat detection and response and can be integrated with other security tools such as intrusion detection systems (IDS) and security information and event management (SIEM) systems.
File Integrity Monitoring (FIM): A security technique used to detect and alert on changes to important files and directories on a computer system. The objective of FIM is to detect unauthorized modifications or tampering to files and directories, which could indicate a security breach, malicious activity, or other types of abnormal behavior. FIM systems monitor and log changes to files and directories, compare the current state to a known good state, and alert administrators if any changes are detected. This helps to ensure that critical files and directories remain intact and unmodified, providing an early warning system to potential security issues.
Intrusion Detection System/Intrusion Prevention System (IDS/IPS) Solution: It is a technology that monitors network traffic for malicious or unauthorized activity and blocks or alerts on such activity. IDS and IPS are used to detect and prevent cyber-attacks, and can be deployed as hardware devices, software applications, or as a combination of both.
Machine Learning Algorithms: A set of mathematical models and statistical techniques used in artificial intelligence and computer science to enable systems to learn from and make predictions based on data, without being explicitly programmed. These algorithms can analyze large datasets, identify patterns and relationships, and make predictions based on those insights. Common machine learning algorithms include decision trees, random forests, support vector machines, neural networks, and k-nearest neighbors.
Browser Isolation or Virtual Browser Solutions: Refers to a technology where browsing sessions are conducted within a secure, isolated environment that runs on a separate server, separate from the end-user's device. This technology allows users to access the web while protecting their devices and network from potential threats, such as malware, phishing attacks, and zero-day exploits. The virtual environment acts as a barrier between the end-user and the potentially malicious websites, making it difficult for attackers to gain access to sensitive information.
Network Access Control (NAC): A security solution that helps organizations control and secure access to their network. NAC solutions monitor, authenticate, and control the access of all devices and users trying to connect to the network, based on predefined security policies. NAC solutions often use a combination of authentication methods, such as usernames and passwords, digital certificates, and biometric identification, to verify the identity of users and devices. The goal of NAC is to ensure that only authorized devices and users can access the network, and that they have the appropriate level of access based on their role and responsibilities within the organization.
Security Orchestration, Automation, and Response (SOAR): It is a security platform that provides a centralized and automated approach to handling security incidents. SOAR enables security teams to coordinate their efforts and automate many routine security tasks, including incident triage, investigation, and response. The goal of SOAR is to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of security operations by reducing manual work, increasing the speed of incident response, and reducing the risk of human error.
Network Segmentation: The process of dividing a computer network into smaller sub-networks, known as segments, to reduce the scope of a potential security breach or to isolate critical systems and sensitive data. Network segmentation is achieved by deploying firewalls, access control lists (ACLs), and other security measures at strategic points within a network to control and restrict communication between network segments. This approach helps to reduce the risk of a security breach spreading throughout the network, enables more targeted and effective security measures, and makes it easier to manage security policies and compliance.
Network Detect and Respond (NDR): Refers to a security approach that aims to identify and respond to network-based security threats in a timely manner. This approach typically involves deploying security solutions such as intrusion detection systems (IDS) and intrusion prevention systems (IPS) that monitor network traffic and identify suspicious activity. Upon detection, the NDR approach will then trigger an automated response, such as blocking the source of the attack, quarantining the affected systems, or providing a detailed alert to security personnel. The goal of NDR is to minimize the risk of data loss and disruption to critical systems, and to provide an efficient response to security incidents.
Runtime Application Self-Protection (RASP): A technology used to protect applications against cyber-attacks and security threats in real-time, while they are running. It operates by embedding security controls directly into the application code, allowing it to detect and block attacks and malicious activity in real-time. This provides a level of protection beyond traditional security solutions that rely on signature-based or rule-based approaches to security, which are typically performed outside the application.
Implementing DevSecOps: The integration of security practices into the software development lifecycle (SDLC), also known as the DevOps process. This approach helps ensure that security is built into the development process from the beginning, and that software is developed, tested, and deployed with security considerations in mind. The goal of Implementing DevSecOps is to identify and mitigate security risks early in the software development process, reducing the risk of security breaches and increasing the overall security of software systems.
Deception Techniques: Refers to the use of false or misleading information to deceive an attacker or unauthorized person who is trying to gain access to a computer system or network. The goal of deception techniques is to distract or redirect the attacker, making it more difficult for them to find and exploit vulnerabilities, and allowing the defender to identify and respond to the attack more quickly. Some common forms of deception include false targets, fake credentials, decoys, honeypots, and honeynets. These techniques can be used to deceive both human attackers and automated attackers such as bots or malware.
Email Encryption: The process of encrypting the contents of an email message to protect it from unauthorized access. The goal of email encryption is to ensure that the information contained within an email message cannot be read by anyone other than the intended recipient(s). This is typically achieved by using encryption algorithms to transform the original message into a form that is unreadable without the proper decryption key. The encrypted message can then be transmitted over the Internet and decrypted only by the intended recipient(s) with the right decryption key. This method provides a secure means of transmitting sensitive information over the Internet, as the encrypted message is protected from interception and unauthorized access.
Software Bill of Materials (SBOM): A comprehensive list of all the components, libraries, and other dependencies used in a software application or system. It includes information such as version numbers, authors, and licensing information. The SBOM helps organizations understand what components are used in their software, which can help with software security, supply chain risk management, and regulatory compliance efforts.
Vendor Security Management Program: A program or set of policies and procedures that organizations implement to manage the security risks associated with their third-party vendors and partners. The program ensures that the vendors meet the organization's security requirements and are following best practices in information security. The program covers various aspects of vendor security, such as risk assessments, security contract requirements, incident response procedures, and continuous monitoring of vendor compliance. The goal of a Vendor Security Management Program is to minimize the security risks posed by third-party vendors and ensure that all information and assets are protected in accordance with the organization's security policies and standards.
Third-Party Security Assessment: Refers to the process of evaluating the security of third-party systems, software, applications, and services that an organization plans to use, or is already using. The aim of this assessment is to identify any potential security vulnerabilities, risks, or weaknesses that may impact the organization and to ensure that the third-party service provides a secure environment for sensitive data. The assessment process includes various activities, such as evaluating the third-party's security policies, controls, technologies, and practices, conducting security audits, penetration testing, and more. The results of the assessment can help organizations make informed decisions about the security of the third-party service and can also provide recommendations for improving security.
Background Checks: A process of verifying an individual's personal and professional history to determine their suitability for employment, security clearance, or other purposes. The process typically includes checking an individual's criminal record, educational and employment history, and other relevant information. The purpose of background checks is to help ensure the safety and security of organizations and their employees, as well as to reduce the risk of fraud, theft, or other malicious activities.
Privilege Access Management (PAM): A security strategy that helps organizations control and manage access to systems, applications, and data based on an individual's privileges, responsibilities, and need-to-know. The goal of PAM is to reduce the risk of unauthorized access, data breaches, and other security incidents by implementing access controls, privilege escalation controls, and other security measures. PAM is usually implemented through a combination of technical solutions, such as password management, access controls, and role-based access management, and business processes, such as security training and incident response.
Data Loss Prevention (DLP): A set of technologies, processes, and policies that aim to prevent sensitive or confidential information from being leaked or lost. DLP typically uses a combination of data encryption, data classification, data monitoring, and data blocking techniques to protect sensitive information from unauthorized access, theft, or accidental loss. DLP systems can be implemented in a variety of environments, including endpoints, networks, and cloud environments. The goal of DLP is to protect sensitive data from being leaked outside the organization or from being lost or deleted, either by accident or malicious intent.
Identity and Access Management (IAM): A security framework that helps organizations manage and secure user access to resources. IAM covers the full lifecycle of user access, including user identification and authentication, authorization, and accounting. It aims to ensure that the right users have access to the right resources at the right time, and that all user access is properly controlled and monitored. IAM also includes processes for managing user credentials and for revoking access when necessary.
Advanced Threat Intelligence: Refers to a set of processes and technologies used to identify and understand malicious actors, their tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs), and the potential threats they pose to an organization's environment. It typically involves the collection, analysis, and dissemination of information from a variety of sources such as internal networks, public and private threat intelligence feeds, and open-source data.
Continuous Monitoring: The ongoing and systematic surveillance, assessment, and evaluation of security controls and security-related information to provide assurance that the security controls remain effective, and the organization's information and systems remain secure. It involves regularly collecting, analyzing, and reporting security-related data to identify potential security threats, vulnerabilities, and incidents and to take proactive measures to prevent, mitigate, or respond to security incidents.
Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning: Artificial Intelligence (AI) refers to the simulation of human intelligence in machines that are programmed to think and act like humans. It involves the development of algorithms and computer programs that can perform tasks that would normally require human intelligence, such as speech recognition, image recognition, and problem-solving.
Machine Learning (ML) is a subset of AI that involves the use of algorithms to enable a computer system to learn from data and improve its performance over time. ML algorithms can identify patterns in data and use that information to make predictions or decisions without being explicitly programmed to do so. This type of learning allows the machine to continuously improve its performance and make increasingly accurate predictions.
Behavioral Analysis: A method used to identify and understand an individual's behavior patterns and habits, often for the purposes of security, intelligence, or marketing. This can involve analyzing various types of data, such as digital or physical activity, communications, or transaction data, to develop a profile of an individual's behavior. The goal of behavioral analysis is to identify anomalies or deviations from typical behavior, which may indicate malicious activity, security risks, or opportunities for improvement. In security and intelligence, behavioral analysis is often used to detect and respond to cyber threats, fraud, or other criminal activity, while in marketing, it may be used to improve customer engagement and experience.
Memory-Based Analysis: Is a type of security analysis that focuses on examining the memory contents of a computer system, typically at the time of a security incident. It aims to identify malicious activity or suspicious behavior by examining the data stored in the system's memory, including the contents of memory-resident programs, data structures, and network connections. The goal of memory-based analysis is to gain insight into what a malicious program is doing and to identify the source of an attack or intrusion. This approach can be used to analyze both live systems and memory dump files captured from systems that have been shut down. Memory-based analysis is typically performed by security researchers and incident responders to help identify the root cause of a security incident and to inform the development of effective defenses against similar attacks in the future.
Network Forensics: The process of capturing, analyzing, and preserving network data and metadata in order to identify security incidents and support investigations. It involves capturing network traffic and analyzing it to identify anomalies, determine the cause of security incidents, and provide evidence for legal or regulatory purposes. Network forensics can be used to detect various types of security incidents, including cyber-attacks, data theft, insider threats, and network outages. The goal of network forensics is to identify the source and scope of security incidents, understand how they were carried out, and help prevent future incidents from occurring.
User and Entity Behavior Analytics (UEBA): A security technology and approach used to detect potential security threats to an organization's IT systems. It applies machine learning and statistical analysis techniques to monitor and analyze the behavior of users and entities (such as devices, IP addresses, etc.) within the organization's IT environment. The goal of UEBA is to identify and alert on unusual or suspicious behavior that may indicate a security breach, fraud, or malicious activity. UEBA can help organizations to proactively detect security threats by analyzing large volumes of data from various sources such as network logs, authentication logs, and endpoint data, and provide real-time visibility into security events.
Behavioral Biometrics: A form of authentication that uses the unique patterns of a user's behavior (such as typing rhythm, mouse movements, etc.) to identify and verify their identity. It's a technology that can be used as an additional layer of security in addition to traditional methods like passwords or security tokens.
Software-Defined Perimeter (SDP): A security architecture that provides secure access to applications and networks. It uses a combination of encryption and authentication techniques to create a "black cloud" of protected resources that are only accessible to authorized users. The architecture is designed to minimize the attack surface and prevent unauthorized access to sensitive information and resources. SDP operates at the network layer, providing a secure and scalable way to control access to resources for users and devices, regardless of location or device type.
Zero-Trust Architecture: A security model that assumes all networked devices, systems, and users are potentially compromised and not to be trusted. Access to resources and data is granted based on continuous validation and verification of identity, device, and network posture. The goal is to minimize trust in the network and minimize the attack surface.
Quantum-Resistant Security: Refers to security measures that are designed to defend against potential threats posed by quantum computers. Quantum computers can solve certain problems much faster than classical computers, and this increased computational power has the potential to break many of the cryptographic algorithms that are used to secure data. To prepare for this potential threat, researchers are developing quantum-resistant cryptography and security protocols that will be able to withstand attacks from quantum computers.
Threat Hunting: A proactive cybersecurity process of proactively and continuously searching for signs of security threats within an organization's network and systems to detect and prevent potential attacks. It involves collecting and analyzing data from various sources, such as logs, network traffic, and endpoint data, to identify unusual or suspicious activity that may indicate the presence of a threat.
Blockchain: A decentralized, distributed ledger technology that securely records transactions across multiple nodes. It uses cryptography to secure and verify transactions, making it difficult for a single party to alter the information stored in the ledger. The decentralized nature of blockchain ensures that there is no single point of control or failure, making it a secure and reliable way to store and exchange information, including financial transactions and other types of data. Additionally, blockchain technology enables transparency and immutability, as all parties on the network can see the transactions being recorded and the information stored in the ledger cannot be altered retroactively.
Biometric-Based Authentication: A method of verifying a person's identity by using their unique biological characteristics, such as their fingerprint, iris pattern, facial features, or voice. This type of authentication is typically more secure than traditional methods, such as passwords or security tokens, as biometric data is unique to each individual and difficult to replicate or steal.
Homomorphic Encryption: A type of cryptography that allows computation to be performed on ciphertext, the encrypted data, without first decrypting it. This means that computations can be executed on encrypted data without revealing the original data to the person performing the computation. The result of the computation is then encrypted, allowing only the intended recipient to access the result.
Advanced Phishing-Aware Web Browsers: A type of web browser that provides enhanced protection against phishing attacks, which are a type of cyber-attack that aims to steal sensitive information such as passwords and credit card details.
AI-Based IPS: A type of network security system that uses artificial intelligence and machine learning algorithms to detect and prevent cyber-attacks in real-time. AI-based IPS systems work by analyzing network traffic and identifying unusual or malicious behavior that may indicate an attack. This information is used to build a profile of normal network behavior, and any deviations from this profile are flagged and potentially blocked.
AI-Based Endpoint Protection: A type of cybersecurity solution that uses artificial intelligence and machine learning algorithms to protect endpoints such as computers, laptops, and mobile devices from cyber threats such as malware, viruses, and phishing attacks. The system continuously monitors endpoints for suspicious activity and uses AI algorithms to quickly detect and respond to threats in real-time. The goal of AI-based endpoint protection is to provide more effective and efficient security for endpoints compared to traditional security solutions that rely on signature-based detection and rule-based decision making.
Adaptive Security Architecture: A design philosophy for information security systems that emphasizes the ability to quickly adapt to changing threats and changing technology. It involves the use of multiple layers of security controls that can work together to provide a comprehensive security solution that can evolve over time. The goal of an adaptive security architecture is to provide effective security that can be maintained even in the face of rapidly evolving threats and changing technology.
Security Intelligence Platforms: A type of software platform that is used to collect, analyze, and act on security-related data. The goal of a Security Intelligence Platform is to provide organizations with a comprehensive view of their security posture and to help them identify and respond to security threats in a timely manner. Security Intelligence Platforms typically integrate with a variety of security technologies and tools, such as firewalls, intrusion detection systems, and security information and event management (SIEM) systems. They use advanced analytics and machine learning algorithms to process and analyze large amounts of security-related data and provide actionable intelligence to security teams. The ultimate goal of a Security Intelligence Platform is to help organizations proactively detect and respond to security threats, improve their overall security posture, and reduce the risk of security incidents.
Threat Modeling and Attack Simulation: Threat Modeling is the process of systematically analyzing a system or application to identify potential security threats and determine how to mitigate them. Threat Modeling typically involves creating a diagram or model of the system or application and identifying potential attack paths and attack scenarios. This information is then used to prioritize security measures and identify areas that require further attention.
Attack Simulation is the process of simulating real-world security attacks on a system or application to determine its security posture and identify areas for improvement. Attack Simulation typically involves using tools and techniques to emulate real-world security attacks and assess the system's ability to detect and respond to these attacks. The results of the simulation are used to evaluate the effectiveness of existing security measures and identify areas for improvement.
Together, Threat Modeling and Attack Simulation help organizations proactively identify and address potential security risks, improve their overall security posture, and reduce the risk of security incidents.
Security-Focused Microservices: An approach to designing and building microservices-based applications where security is a primary concern. In a security-focused microservices architecture, security is integrated into each microservice and is treated as a first-class citizen, rather than an afterthought.